Type of Pumps Used in a Fire-Fighting System

Firefighting systems are crucial for safeguarding lives and property in case of emergencies. One of the key components of these systems is the pump, which plays a pivotal role in delivering water with sufficient pressure to combat fires effectively. This article discusses two primary types of pumps commonly used in firefighting systems: Centrifugal Pumps and Vertical Turbine Pumps.

Centrifugal Pumps:
Centrifugal pumps are the most widely used pumps in various applications, including fire fighting systems. These pumps function by converting mechanical energy from a motor into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. Here’s how they work:

A centrifugal pump comprises a pump head, a shaft, and an impeller. The impeller is mounted on the shaft and rotates within the pump casing.

Working Principle:
When the motor drives the pump shaft, the impeller also rotates. As the impeller spins, it creates a centrifugal force that propels fluid to the outer edges of the casing. This action causes a vacuum to form at the center, drawing in more fluid. The fluid is then pushed out through an outlet at the top of the casing, generating pressure.

Advantages of Centrifugal Pumps:
Smooth Flow: Centrifugal flow is consistent and non-pulsating, making these pumps compatible with flowmeters.

Low Maintenance:
The simple design of centrifugal pumps makes them easy to maintain without special tools.

Vertical Turbine Pumps:
Vertical turbine pumps, also known as deep well or line shaft pumps, are another type of centrifugal pump often used in firefighting systems. They are designed for submersion in water, typically drawing from underground wells or reservoirs.

Multi-stage design with a diffuser-type bowl.

Semi-open or enclosed impellers mounted on a collet.

Available with double-suction first-stage impellers for ultra-low NPSHR (Net Positive Suction Head Required) applications.

Oil or grease lubrication.

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